Three male figures, seated and painted in black. The men, wearing only white loincloths and medallions around their necks and a head dress bearing another medallion and a single feather, were uncovered on the ruined house’s west wall. The painting recreates the design and colors of the original Maya mural. Excavation and preservation of the site were supported by the National Geographic Society. (Credit: Heather Hurst, copyright National Geographic Society)
The first artwork to be found on walls of a Maya house adorn the dwelling in the ruined city of Xultún. The figure at left is one of three men on the house’s west wall who are painted in black and wear identical costumes.( Photo by Tyrone Turner © 2012 National Geographic Society)
AT FIRST GLANCE THE MOUND is nothing remarkable—just a pile of dirt and stone covered in trees and vegetation. It’s in the Guatemalan forest on the outskirts of the Classic Maya site of Xultún, near another site I’ve been studying for the past decade. At some point, looters dug a hole into it, looking for a tomb. I told the student who found an eroded wall with faint glimpses of paint, “There used to be something here, but there’s nothing now.” Still, I was curious. So I excavated to the back wall, and I saw a beautiful portrait of a king. There he was in Technicolor, with blue feathers. I laughed. I mean, what are the chances?
It’s rare to find ancient Maya murals, but I’ve had great luck over the years. I’d love for it to be due to some brilliance of mine, but it’s just luck. I can’t explain it. When we excavated the six-foot-wide room in this mound, we found paintings of several figures with the king. One is identified in glyphs as Younger Brother Obsidian. He’s holding a stylus. An entire wall is covered in mathematical calculations.
My hunch is that this may have been a workspace or teaching space for scribes, artists, or scholars. They were working things out for later public consumption. This room gives us a rare glimpse of Maya thought processes. When my colleagues and I studied four columns of huge numbers, we realized these were calculations based on the Maya calendar and astronomy that projected 2.5 million days—some 7,000 years—into the future.
This was done in A.D. 813 or 814, 75 years before Xultún’s final days. A lot of the Maya lowlands had already fallen silent. The collapse had begun. Trade routes and hubs of communication were all changing. At Xultún, folks were going about business as usual, but there was an undercurrent of anxiety. They wanted to tie events in their king’s life to larger cosmic cycles. They wanted to show that the king would be OK.
It’s important to understand that the ancient Maya predicted the world would continue. That was their point. They didn’t predict the end of the world. There would be cycles, new beginnings—but never endings. That’s what’s going on in this room. The numbers on the walls are calculations of when the same cosmic events would happen in the future. The Maya were looking for a guarantee that nothing would change. We keep looking for endings. It’s an entirely different mind-set. I would never have identified this nondescript mound as special. But this discovery implies that special things are everywhere. —William Saturno
|A Maya king, seated and wearing an elaborate head dress of blue feathers, adorns the north wall of the ruined house discovered at the Maya site of Xultún. An attendant, at right, leans out from behind the king’s head dress. The painting by artist Heather Hurst recreates the design and colors of the original Maya artwork at the site.
CREDIT: Heather Hurst, copyright National Geographic Society
The oldest-known version of the ancient Maya calendar has been discovered adorning a lavishly painted wall in the ruins of a city deep in the Guatemalan rainforest.
The hieroglyphs, painted in black and red, along with a colorful mural of a king and his mysterious attendants, seem to have been a sort of handy reference chart for court scribes in A.D. 800 — the astronomers and mathematicians of their day. Contrary to popular myth, this calendar isn’t a countdown to the end of the world in December 2012, the study researchers said.
“The Mayan calendar is going to keep going for billions, trillions, octillions of years into the future,” said archaeologist David Stuart of the University of Texas, who worked to decipher the glyphs. “Numbers we can’t even wrap our heads around.” [End of the World? Top Doomsday Fears]
A brilliant surprise
The newly discovered calendar is complex indeed, featuring stacked bars and dots representing fives and ones and recording lunar cycles in six-month chunks of time. But it wasn’t these mathematical notations that first caught the archeologists’ eye. William Saturno, an archaeologist from Boston University, was mapping the ancient Maya city of Xultun in northeast Guatemala in 2010 when one of his undergraduate students peered into an old trench dug by looters and reported seeing traces of ancient paint.
The discovery was “certainly nothing to write home about,” Saturno told reporters on Thursday (May 10), in advance of releasing details of the murals in this week’s issue of the journal Science. Paint doesn’t preserve well in the rain forest climate of Guatemala, and Saturno figured that the faint red and black lines his student had found weren’t going to yield much information. But he felt he had a responsibility to excavate the room the looters had tried to reach, if only to be able to report the size of the structure along with the paint finding.
CREDIT: Photo by Tyrone Turner © 2012 National Geographic
As Saturno continued along the old trench to the back wall, he was shocked to run into a brilliantly painted portrait: a Mayan king, sitting on his throne, wearing a red crown with blue feathers flowing out behind him. Another figure peeks out from behind him. On an adjoining wall, three loincloth-clad figures sit, wearing feathered headdresses. One is captioned “Older Brother Obsidian,” or “Senior Obsidian,” a still-mysterious title. Next to the king, a man painted in brilliant orange wearing jade bracelets reaches out with a stylus, likely identifying him as a scribe. He is labeled as “Younger Brother Obsidian,” or perhaps “Junior Obsidian.” [See Photos of the Mayan murals]
It’s not the end of the world
These paintings — covering the west and north walls of the small, 6-foot-by-6-foot room — weren’t the only surprise Xultun had to offer. On the east wall, someone had painted a series of small, complex hieroglyphics. This, the researchers soon realized, was a calendar.
The calendar seemed to have been added after the murals were completed, as some of the numbers cover up painted figures on the wall. It’s almost as if an ancient scribe got sick of flipping through a document to find his timekeeping chart and decided to put it on the wall for at-a-glance reference, Stuart said.
“It’s kind of like having a whiteboard in your office where you’re writing down formulas that you want to remember,” he said.
The Maya recorded time in a series of cycles, including 400-year chunks called baktuns. It’s these baktuns that have led to rumors of an end-of-the-world catastrophe on Dec. 21, 2012 — on that date, a cycle of 13 baktuns will be complete. But the idea that this meansthe end of the world is a misconception, Stuart said. In fact, Maya experts have known for a long time that the calendar doesn’t end after the 13th baktun. It simply begins a new cycle. And the calendar encompasses much larger units than the baktun.
CREDIT: Illustration by William Saturno and David Stuart © 2012 National Geographic
“There were 24 units of time they actually could have incorporated into their calendar,” Stuart said. “Here, we’re only seeing five units and they’re still really big.”
In one column, the ancient scribe even worked out a cycle of time recording 17 baktuns, the researchers found. In another spot, someone etched a “ring number” into the wall. These notations were used to record time in a previous cycle, thousands of years into the past. The calendar also appears to note the cycles of Mars and Venus, the researchers said.Symbols of gods head the top of each lunar cycle, suggesting that each cycle had its own patron deity.
“There was a lot more to the Maya calendar than just 13 baktuns,” Stuart said.
Scratching the surface
This ancient “wall calendar” is a major find, because the first known calendar and astronomical tables before this time came from the Dresden Codex, a book that dates to the 11th or 12th centuries. Most likely, Saturno said, the wall calendar and the Dresden Codex both arose from earlier books that long ago rotted away. [8 Grisly Archaeological Discoveries]
The mural room gives an unprecedented glimpse into the work lives of Mayan scientists, Stuart said. The mural room is in a compound with several other rooms, which were collapsed and built over in later years. The murals only survived, because, instead of collapsing the room, Mayan engineers filled it with rubble and then built on top of it.
“This is clearly a space where someone important was living, this important household of the noble class, and here you also have a mathematician working in that space,” Stuart said. “It’s a great illustration of how closely those roles were connected in Mayan society.”
Kings would have been extremely interested in timekeeping, Stuart said, because part of their job was to conduct rituals of renewal at certain times. Unfortunately, the name of the king pictured in the mural room has been lost.
Although Xultun was first discovered in 1915, less than 0.1 percent has been explored, Saturno said. Looters damaged much of the ancient city in the 1970s, meaning much of historical significance has been lost. But archaeologists still don’t even know how far the boundaries of the town extend.
“[That] investigations can begin and in a house like this we can find something we’ve never seen before only speaks to the great wealth of scientific material that remains in Guatemala in the Maya area for us to discover,” Saturno said.
The excavations of the mural room were funded by the National Geographic Society.