His 755 career home runs broke the long-standing MLB record set by Babe Ruth and stood as the most for 33 years; Aaron still holds many other MLB batting records. He hit 24 or more home runs every year from 1955 through 1973 and is one of only two players to hit 30 or more home runs in a season at least fifteen times.
|Born: February 5, 1934|
|Died: January 22, 2021 (aged 86)|
|April 13, 1954, for the Milwaukee Braves|
|Last MLB appearance|
|October 3, 1976, for the Milwaukee Brewers|
|Runs batted in||2,297|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
|Vote||97.8% (first ballot)|
Henry Louis Aaron (February 5, 1934 – January 22, 2021), nicknamed "Hammer" or "Hammerin' Hank", was an American professional baseball right fielder who played 23 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB), from 1954 through 1976. Widely regarded as one of the greatest baseball players in history, he spent 21 seasons with the Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves in the National League (NL) and two seasons with the Milwaukee Brewers in the American League (AL).
His 755 career home runs broke the long-standing MLB record set by Babe Ruth and stood as the most for 33 years; Aaron still holds many other MLB batting records. He hit 24 or more home runs every year from 1955 through 1973 and is one of only two players to hit 30 or more home runs in a season at least fifteen times. In 1999, The Sporting News ranked Aaron fifth on its list of the "100 Greatest Baseball Players". In 1982, he was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility.
Aaron was born and raised in and around Mobile, Alabama. Aaron had seven siblings, including Tommie Aaron, who played major-league baseball with him. He appeared briefly in the Negro American League and in minor league baseball before starting his major league career. By his final MLB season, Aaron was the last Negro league baseball player on a major league roster. During his time in MLB, and especially during his run for the home run record, Aaron and his family endured extensive racist threats. His experiences fueled his activism during the civil rights movement.
Aaron played the vast majority of his MLB games in right field, though he appeared at several other infield and outfield positions. In his last two seasons, he was primarily a designated hitter. Aaron was an NL All-Star for 20 seasons and an AL All-Star for one season, and he holds the record for the most All-Star selections (25),[a] while sharing the record for most All-Star Games played (24) with Willie Mays and Stan Musial. He was a three-time Gold Glove winner, and in 1957, he won the NL Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award when the Milwaukee Braves won the World Series. Aaron holds the MLB records for the most career runs batted in (RBIs) (2,297), extra base hits (1,477), and total bases (6,856). Aaron is also in the top five for career hits (3,771) and runs (2,174). He is one of only four players to have at least 17 seasons with 150 or more hits. Aaron is in second place in home runs (755) and at-bats (12,364), and in third place in games played (3,298). At the time of his retirement, Aaron held most of the game's key career power-hitting records.
After his retirement, Aaron held front office roles with the Atlanta Braves, including the senior vice president. In 1988, Aaron was inducted into the Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame. In 1999, MLB introduced the Hank Aaron Award to recognize the top offensive players in each league. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002. He was named a 2010 Georgia Trustee by the Georgia Historical Society in recognition of accomplishments that reflect the ideals of Georgia's founders. Aaron resided near Atlanta until his death.
Aaron was born in Mobile, Alabama, to Herbert Aaron Sr. and Estella (Pritchett) Aaron. He had seven siblings. Tommie Aaron, one of his brothers, also went on to play Major League Baseball. By the time Aaron retired, he and his brother held the record for most career home runs by a pair of siblings (768). They were also the first siblings to appear in a League Championship Series as teammates.
While he was born in a section of Mobile referred to as "Down the Bay", he spent most of his youth in Toulminville. Aaron grew up in a poor family. His family could not afford baseball equipment, so he practiced by hitting bottle caps with sticks. He would create his own bats and balls out of materials he found on the streets. His boyhood idol was baseball star Jackie Robinson. Aaron attended Central High School[b] as a freshman and a sophomore. Like most high schools, they did not have organized baseball, so he played outfield and third base for the Mobile Black Bears, a semipro team. Aaron was a member of the Boy Scouts of America.
Although he batted cross-handed (as a right-handed hitter, with his left hand above his right), Aaron established himself as a power hitter. As a result, in 1949, at the age of 15, Aaron had his first tryout with an MLB franchise, the Brooklyn Dodgers; however, he did not make the team. After this, Aaron returned to school to finish his secondary education, attending the Josephine Allen Institute, a private high school in Alabama. During his junior year, Aaron joined the Prichard Athletics, an independent Negro league team, followed by the Mobile Black Bears, another independent Negro league team. While on the Bears, Aaron earned $3 per game ($30 today), which was a dollar more than he got while on the Athletics.
Negro league and minor league career
He started play as a 6 ft (180 cm), 180 lb (82 kg) shortstop, and earned $200 per month. As a result of his standout play with the Indianapolis Clowns, Aaron received two offers from MLB teams via telegram, one from the New York Giants and the other from the Boston Braves. Years later, Aaron remembered:
We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain to stop, and I can still envision sitting with the Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we finished eating. What a horrible sound. Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me: here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they'd have washed them.
The Braves purchased Aaron's contract from the Clowns for $10,000, which GM John Quinn thought was a steal, as he stated that he felt that Aaron was a $100,000 property. On June 12, 1952, Aaron signed with Braves' scout Dewey Griggs. During this time, he picked up the nickname "pork chops" because it "was the only thing I knew to order off the menu". A teammate later said, "the man ate pork chops three meals a day, two for breakfast".
The Braves assigned Aaron to the Eau Claire Bears, the Braves' Northern League Class-C farm team. The 1952 season proved to be very beneficial for Aaron. Playing in the infield, Aaron continued to develop as a ballplayer and made the Northern League's All-Star team. He broke his habit of hitting cross-handed and adopted the standard hitting technique. By the end of the season, he had performed so well that the league made him the unanimous choice for Rookie of the Year. Although he appeared in just 87 games, he scored 89 runs, had 116 hits, nine home runs, and 61 RBIs. In addition, Aaron hit for a .336 batting average. During his minor league experience, he was very homesick and faced constant racism, but his brother, Herbert Jr., told him not to give up the opportunity.
In 1953, the Braves promoted him to the Jacksonville Braves, their Class-A affiliate in the South Atlantic League. Helped by Aaron's performance, the Braves won the league championship that year. Aaron led the league in runs (115), hits (208), doubles (36), RBIs (125), total bases (338), and batting average (.362). He won the league's Most Valuable Player Award, and had such a dominant year that one sportswriter was prompted to say, "Henry Aaron led the league in everything except hotel accommodations." Aaron's time with the Braves did not come without problems. He was one of the first African Americans to play in the league. The 1950s were a period of racial segregation in parts of the United States, especially the southeastern portion of the country. When Aaron traveled around Jacksonville, Florida, and the surrounding areas, he was often separated from his team because of Jim Crow laws. In most circumstances, the team was responsible for arranging housing and meals for its players, but Aaron often had to make his own arrangements. The Braves' manager, Ben Geraghty, tried his best to help Aaron on and off the field. Former Braves minor league player and sportswriter Pat Jordan said, "Aaron gave [Geraghty] much of the credit for his own swift rise to stardom."
That same year, Aaron met his future wife, Barbara Lucas. The night they met, Lucas decided to attend the Braves' game. Aaron singled, doubled, and hit a home run in the game. On October 6, Aaron and Lucas married. In 1958, Aaron's wife noted that during the offseason he liked "to sit and watch those shooting westerns". He also enjoyed cooking and fishing.
Aaron spent the winter of 1953 playing in Puerto Rico. Mickey Owen, the team's manager, helped Aaron with his batting stance. Until then, Aaron had hit most pitches to left field or center field, but after working with Owen, Aaron was able to hit the ball more effectively all over the field. During his stay in Puerto Rico, Owen also helped Aaron transition from second base to the outfield. Aaron had not played well at second base, but Owen noted that Aaron could catch fly balls and throw them well from the outfield to the infield.
The stint in Puerto Rico also allowed Aaron to avoid being drafted into military service. Though the Korean War was over, people were still being drafted. The Braves were able to speak to the draft board, making the case that Aaron could be the player to integrate the Southern Association the following season with the Atlanta Crackers. The board appears to have been convinced, as Aaron was not drafted.
In 1954, Aaron attended spring training with the major league club. Although he was on the roster of its farm club, Milwaukee manager Charley Grimm later stated, "From the start, he did so well I knew we were going to have to carry him." On March 13, 1954, Milwaukee Braves left fielder Bobby Thomson fractured his ankle while sliding into second base during a spring training game. The next day, Aaron made his first spring training start for the Braves major league team, playing in left field and hitting a home run. This led Hank Aaron to a major league contract, signed on the final day of spring training, and a Braves uniform with the number five. On April 13, Aaron made his major league debut and was hitless in five at-bats against the Cincinnati Reds' left-hander Joe Nuxhall. In the same game, Eddie Mathews hit two home runs, the first of a record 863 home runs the pair would hit as teammates. On April 15, Aaron collected his first major league hit, a double off Cardinals' pitcher Vic Raschi. Aaron hit his first major league home run on April 23, also off Raschi. Over the next 122 games, Aaron batted .280 with 13 homers before he suffered a fractured ankle on September 5. He then changed his number to 44, which would turn out to look like a "lucky number" for the slugger. Aaron would hit 44 home runs in four different seasons, and he hit his record-breaking 715th career home run off Dodgers pitcher Al Downing, who coincidentally also wore number 44.
At this point, Aaron was known to family and friends primarily as "Henry". Braves' public relations director Don Davidson, observing Aaron's quiet, reserved nature, began referring to him publicly as "Hank" in order to suggest more accessibility. The nickname quickly gained currency, but "Henry" continued to be cited frequently in the media, both sometimes appearing in the same article, and Aaron would answer to either one. During his rookie year, his other well-known nicknames, "Hammerin' Hank" (by teammates) and "Bad Henry" (by opposing pitchers) are reported to have arisen.
Considerably later in his career, Aaron coined "Stone-fingers", which would prove a popular handle for one of baseball's more colorful characters, the famously distance-hitting but defensively challenged first baseman Dick Stuart, reportedly "delight[ing]" even its recipient.
Sal Maglie recommended throwing low curveballs to Aaron. "He's going to swing and he'll go after almost anything," Maglie said of the Braves' slugger. "And he'll hit almost anything, so you have to be careful."
Prime of his career
Aaron hit .314 with 27 home runs and 106 RBIs, in 1955. He was named to the NL All-Star roster for the first time; it was the first of a record 21 All-Star selections and first of a record 25 All-Star Game appearances. In 1956, Aaron hit .328 and captured the first of two NL batting titles. He was also named The Sporting News NL Player of the Year. In 1957, Aaron won his only NL MVP Award, as he had his first brush with the triple crown. He batted .322, placing third, and led the league in home runs and runs batted in. On September 23, 1957, in Milwaukee, Aaron hit a two-run walk-off home run against the St. Louis Cardinals, clinching the pennant for the Braves. After touching home plate he was carried off the field by his teammates. It is as of yet the only pennant-clinching walk-off home run in major league history in a non-playoff regular-season game. Milwaukee went on to win the World Series against the New York Yankees, the defending champions, 4 games to 3. Aaron did his part by hitting .393 with three homers and seven RBIs. On December 15, 1957, his wife Barbara gave birth to twins. Two days later, one of the children died. In 1958, Aaron hit .326, with 30 home runs and 95 RBIs. He led the Braves to another pennant, but this time they lost a seven-game World Series to the Yankees. Aaron finished third in the MVP race and he received his first of three Gold Glove Awards. During the next several years, Aaron had some of his best games and best seasons as a major league player. On June 21, 1959, against the San Francisco Giants, he hit three two-run home runs. It was the only time in his career that he hit three home runs in a game.
In 1963, Aaron nearly won the triple crown. He led the league with 44 home runs and 130 RBIs and finished third in batting average.[c] In that season, Aaron became the third player to steal 30 bases and hit 30 home runs in a single season. Despite that, he again finished third in the MVP voting. The Braves moved from Milwaukee to Atlanta after the 1965 season. On May 10, 1967, he hit an inside-the-park home run against Jim Bunning in Philadelphia. It was the only inside-the-park home run of his career. In 1968, Aaron was the first Atlanta Braves player to hit his 500th career home run, and in 1970, he was the first Atlanta Brave to reach 3,000 career hits.
Home run milestones and 3,000th hit
During his days in Atlanta, Aaron reached several milestones; he was only the eighth player ever to hit 500 career home runs, with his 500th coming against Mike McCormick of the San Francisco Giants on July 14, 1968 — exactly one year after former Milwaukee Braves teammate Eddie Mathews had hit his 500th. Aaron was, at the time, the second-youngest player to reach the milestone.[d] On July 31, 1969, Aaron hit his 537th home run, passing Mickey Mantle's total; this moved Aaron into third place on the career home run list, after Willie Mays and Babe Ruth. At the end of the 1969 season, Aaron again finished third in the MVP voting.
In 1970, Aaron reached two more career milestones. On May 17, Aaron collected his 3,000th hit, in a game against the Cincinnati Reds, the team against which he played in his first major-league game. Aaron established the record for most seasons with thirty or more home runs in the National League. On April 27, 1971, Aaron hit his 600th career home run, the third major league player ever to do so. On July 13, Aaron hit a home run in the All-Star Game (played at Detroit's Tiger Stadium) for the first time. He hit his 40th home run of the season against the Giants' Jerry Johnson on August 10, which established a National League record for most seasons with 40 or more home runs (seven). At age 37, he hit a career-high 47 home runs during the season (along with a career-high .669 slugging percentage) and finished third in MVP voting for the sixth time. During the strike-shortened season of 1972, Aaron tied and then surpassed Willie Mays for second place on the career home run list. Aaron also drove in the 2,000th run of his career and hit a home run in the first All-Star game played in Atlanta. As the year came to a close, Aaron broke Stan Musial's major-league record for total bases (6,134), a record he was the most proud of, more than his home run record since it reflected his overall performance as a team player. Aaron finished the season with 673 career home runs.
Breaking Ruth's record
Aaron himself downplayed the "chase" to surpass Babe Ruth, while baseball enthusiasts and the national media grew increasingly excited as he closed in on the 714 career home runs record. Aaron received thousands of letters every week during the summer of 1973, including hate mail; the Braves ended up hiring a secretary to help him sort through it.
Aaron (then age 39) hit 40 home runs in 392 at-bats, ending the 1973 season one home run short of the record. He hit home run number 713 on September 29, 1973, and with one day remaining in the season, many expected him to tie the record. But in his final game that year, playing against the Houston Astros (managed by Leo Durocher, who had once roomed with Babe Ruth), he was unable to achieve this. After the game, Aaron said his only fear was that he might not live to see the 1974 season.
He was the recipient of death threats and a large assortment of hate mail during the 1973–1974 offseason from people who did not want to see Aaron break Ruth's nearly sacrosanct home run record. The threats extended to those providing positive press coverage of Aaron. Lewis Grizzard, then-executive sports editor of the Atlanta Journal, reported receiving numerous phone calls calling journalists "nigger lovers" for covering Aaron's chase. While preparing the massive coverage of the home run record, he quietly had an obituary written, afraid that Aaron might be murdered.
Is this to be the year in which Aaron, at the age of thirty-nine, takes a moon walk above one of the most hallowed individual records in American sport ...? Or will it be remembered as the season in which Aaron, the most dignified of athletes, was besieged with hate mail and trapped by the cobwebs and goblins that lurk in baseball's attic?
At the end of the 1973 season, Aaron received a plaque from the U.S. Postal Service for receiving more mail (930,000 pieces) than any person excluding politicians. Aaron received an outpouring of public support in response to the bigotry. Newspaper cartoonist Charles Schulz created a series of Peanuts strips printed in August 1973 in which Snoopy attempts to break the Ruth record, only to be besieged with hate mail. Lucy says in the August 11 strip, "Hank Aaron is a great player ... but you! If you break Babe Ruth's record, it'll be a disgrace!" Coincidentally, Snoopy was only one home run short of tying the record (and finished the season as such when Charlie Brown got picked off during Snoopy's last at-bat), and as it turned out, Aaron finished the 1973 season one home run short of Ruth. Babe Ruth's widow, Claire Hodgson, denounced the racism and declared that her husband would have enthusiastically cheered Aaron's attempt at the record. As the 1974 season began, Aaron's pursuit of the record caused a small controversy. The Braves opened the season on the road in Cincinnati with a three-game series against the Cincinnati Reds. Braves management wanted him to break the record in Atlanta and was therefore going to have Aaron sit out the first three games of the season. But Baseball Commissioner Bowie Kuhn ruled that he had to play two games in the first series. He played two out of three and tied Babe Ruth's record on April 4, 1974, in his very first at-bat on his first swing of the season—off Reds pitcher Jack Billingham, but did not hit another home run in the series.
The Braves returned to Atlanta, and on April 8, 1974, a crowd of 53,775 people showed up for the game — a Braves attendance record. The game was also broadcast nationally on NBC. In the fourth inning, Aaron hit home run number 715 off Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Al Downing. Although Dodgers outfielder Bill Buckner nearly went over the outfield fence trying to catch it, the ball flew into the Braves' bullpen, where relief pitcher Tom House caught it. While cannons were fired in celebration, two college students  sprinted onto the field and jogged alongside Aaron for part of his circuit around the bases, temporarily startling him. A young Craig Sager actually interviewed Aaron between third and home for a television station, WXLT (now WWSB-Channel 40) in Sarasota. As the fans cheered wildly, Aaron's parents ran onto the field as well. Braves announcer Milo Hamilton, calling the game on WSB radio, described the scene as Aaron broke the record:
"Henry Aaron, in the second inning walked and scored. He's sittin' on 714. Here's the pitch by Downing. Swinging. There's a drive into left-center field. That ball is gonna be-eee ... Outta here! It's gone! It's 715! There's a new home run champion of all time, and it's Henry Aaron! The fireworks are going. Henry Aaron is coming around third. His teammates are at home plate. And listen to this crowd!"
Meanwhile, Dodgers broadcaster Vin Scully addressed the racial tension—or apparent lack thereof—in his call of the home run:
"What a marvelous moment for baseball; what a marvelous moment for Atlanta and the state of Georgia; what a marvelous moment for the country and the world. A black man is getting a standing ovation in the Deep South for breaking a record of an all-time baseball idol. And it is a great moment for all of us, and particularly for Henry Aaron ... And for the first time in a long time, that poker face in Aaron shows the tremendous strain and relief of what it must have been like to live with for the past several months."
Return to Milwaukee
On October 2, 1974, Aaron hit his 733rd home run in his last at-bat as a Braves player. Aaron commented after the game that it was his last time as a player in Atlanta as his contract had expired. While he considered retirement, he said that he was willing to return to baseball for another year. He had also said that he would be interested in serving as a team’s general manager, someone who would make decisions and not a “house boy”. The Braves offered Aaron a position with the team when he retired, but the role would be more in public relations, rather than one where he could evaluate talent.
At the end of the season, Aaron, who had a prior relationship with Brewers owner Bud Selig, requested a trade to Milwaukee. He was acquired by the Milwaukee Brewers for Dave May thirty-one days later on November 2. Minor league right-handed pitcher Roger Alexander was sent to the Braves to complete the transaction at the Winter Meetings one month later on December 2. The trade re-united Aaron with former teammate Del Crandall, who was now managing the Brewers. He signed a two-year contract with the Brewers for $240,000 per year. Playing in the American League would allow Aaron to serve as a Designated hitter rather than play in the field.
On May 1, 1975, Aaron broke baseball's all-time RBI record, previously held by Ruth with 2,213. That year, he also played in his last and 24th All-Star Game (25th All-Star Game selection); he lined out to Dave Concepción as a pinch-hitter in the second inning. This All-Star Game, like the first one he played in 1955, was before a home crowd at Milwaukee County Stadium.
Aaron hit his 755th and final home run on July 20, 1976, at Milwaukee County Stadium off Dick Drago of the California Angels, which stood as the MLB career home run record until it was broken in 2007 by Barry Bonds. Over the course of his record-breaking 23-year career, Aaron had a batting average of .305 with 163 hits a season, while averaging just over 32 home runs and 99 RBIs a year. He had 100+ RBIs in a season 15 times, including a record of 13 in a row.
After the 1976 season, Aaron rejoined the Braves as an executive. On August 1, 1982, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, having received votes on 97.8 percent of the ballots, second only to Ty Cobb, who had received votes on 98.2% of the ballot in the inaugural 1936 Hall of Fame election. Aaron was then named the Braves' vice president and director of player development. This made him one of the first minorities in Major League Baseball upper-level management.
In December 1980, Aaron became senior vice president and assistant to the Braves' president. He was the corporate vice president of community relations for Turner Broadcasting System, a member of the company's board of directors, and the vice president of business development for The Airport Network. On January 21, 2007, Major League Baseball announced the sale of the Atlanta Braves. In that announcement, Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig also announced that Aaron would be playing a major role in the management of the Braves, forming programs through major league baseball that will encourage the influx of minorities into baseball. Aaron founded the Hank Aaron Rookie League program.
Aaron's autobiography, I Had a Hammer was published in 1990. The book's title is a play on his nickname, "The Hammer" or "Hammerin' Hank", and the title of the folk song "If I Had a Hammer". Aaron owned Hank Aaron BMW of south Atlanta in Union City, Georgia, where he included an autographed baseball with every car sold. Aaron also owned Mini, Land Rover, Toyota, Hyundai, and Honda dealerships throughout Georgia, as part of the Hank Aaron Automotive Group. Aaron sold all but the Toyota dealership in McDonough in 2007. Additionally, Aaron owned a chain of 30 restaurants around the country.
Later life and death
During the 2006 season, San Francisco Giants slugger Barry Bonds passed Babe Ruth and moved into second place on the all-time home run list, attracting growing media coverage as he drew closer to Aaron's record. Playing off the intense interest in their perceived rivalry, Aaron and Bonds made a television commercial that aired during Super Bowl XLI, shortly before the start of the 2007 baseball season, in which Aaron jokingly tried to persuade Bonds to retire before breaking the record. As Bonds began to close in on the record during the 2007 season, Aaron let it be known that, although he recognized Bonds' achievements, he would not be present when Bonds broke the record. There was considerable speculation that this was a snubbing of Bonds based on the widespread belief that Bonds had used performance-enhancing drugs and steroids to aid his achievement. However, some observers looked back on Aaron's personal history, pointing out that he had downplayed his own breaking of Babe Ruth's all-time record and suggesting Aaron was simply treating Bonds in a similar fashion. In a later interview with Atlanta sportscasting personality Chris Dimino, Aaron made it clear his reluctance to attend any celebration of a new home run record was based upon his personal conviction that baseball is not about breaking records, but simply playing to the best of one's potential. After Bonds hit his record-breaking 756th home run on August 7, 2007, Aaron made a surprise appearance on the JumboTron video screen at AT&T Park in San Francisco to congratulate Bonds on his accomplishment:
I would like to offer my congratulations to Barry Bonds on becoming baseball's career home run leader. It is a great accomplishment that required skill, longevity, and determination. Throughout the past century, the home run has held a special place in baseball and I have been privileged to hold this record for 33 of those years. I move over now and offer my best wishes to Barry and his family on this historical achievement. My hope today, as it was on that April evening in 1974, is that the achievement of this record will inspire others to chase their own dreams.
On January 5, 2021, Aaron publicly received a COVID-19 vaccination at the Morehouse School of Medicine at Atlanta, Georgia. He had received the Moderna vaccine. He and several other African American public figures, including activist Joe Beasley, Andrew Young, and Louis Sullivan did so to demonstrate the safety of the vaccine and encourage other black Americans to do the same.
He died in his sleep in his Atlanta residence on January 22 at the age of 86. The manner of death was listed as natural causes. An emailed statement to AFP Fact Check from Fulton County medical examiner Karen Sullivan said that "There was no information suggestive of an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to any substance which might be attributable to recent vaccine distribution."
Aaron's first marriage was to Barbara Lucas in 1953. They had five children: Gary, Lary, Dorinda, Gaile, and Hank Jr. He divorced Barbara in 1971 and married Billye Suber Williams on November 13, 1973. With his second wife, he had one child, Ceci.
Aaron was Catholic, having converted in 1959 with his family. He and his wife first became interested in the faith after the birth of their first child, whom they baptized immediately. A friendship with a Roman Catholic priest later helped lead to Hank and his wife's conversion. Aaron was known to frequently read Thomas à Kempis' 15th-century book The Imitation of Christ, which he kept in his locker.
In an interview in 1991, Aaron credited the priest, Fr. Michael Sablica, with helping him grow as a person in the 1950s. "He taught me what life was all about. But he was more than just a religious friend of mine, he was a friend because he talked as if he was not a priest sometimes." Active in the civil rights movement, the priest encouraged Aaron to be more publicly vocal about causes he believed in.
Sablica also encouraged him to "attend Mass every Sunday" during Spring Training, to which he responded with the racist realities of the day: "[In Bradenton], they won't let me go to Mass." Sablica said in an interview that he wouldn't have blamed Aaron if he stopped practicing, and Aaron indeed attended Friendship Baptist Church toward the end of his life—noting in his autobiography that he didn't remain Catholic for very long after converting.
Hobbies and health
Aaron suffered from arthritis and had a partial hip replacement after a fall in 2014.
Awards and honors
|Hank Aaron's number 44 was retired by the Atlanta Braves in 1977.|
|Hank Aaron's number 44 was retired by the Milwaukee Brewers in 1976.|
Aaron was awarded the Spingarn Medal in 1976, from the NAACP. In 1977, Aaron received the American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award. In 1988, Aaron was inducted into the Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame for his time spent on the Eau Claire Bears, Milwaukee Braves, and Milwaukee Brewers.
In 1999, major league baseball created the Hank Aaron Award, to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Aaron's surpassing of Babe Ruth's career home run mark of 714 home runs and to honor Aaron's contributions to baseball. The award is given annually to the baseball hitters voted the most effective in each respective league. That same year, baseball fans named Aaron to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Aaron on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
When the city of Atlanta was converting Centennial Olympic Stadium into a new baseball stadium, many local residents hoped the stadium would be named for Aaron. When the stadium was instead named Turner Field (after Atlanta Braves owner Ted Turner), a section of Capitol Avenue running past the stadium was renamed Hank Aaron Drive. The stadium's street number is 755, after Aaron's total number of home runs; the 755 street number was retained for Turner Field's replacement, Truist Park. In April 1997, a new baseball facility for the AA Mobile Bay Bears constructed in Aaron's hometown of Mobile, Alabama was named Hank Aaron Stadium. Georgia State University acquired Turner Field and has since rebuilt it as Center Parc Stadium, in 2017, and university officials plan to build a new baseball park on the former Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium site, incorporating the left field wall where Aaron hit his record-breaking home run.
On February 5, 1999, at his 65th birthday celebration, Major League Baseball announced the introduction of the Hank Aaron Award. The award honors the best overall offensive performer in the American and National League. It was the first major award to be introduced in more than thirty years and had the distinction of being the first award named after a player who was still alive. Later that year, he ranked fifth on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.
In June 2000 Tufts University awarded Aaron an honorary Doctor of Public Service. In July 2000 and again in July 2002, Aaron threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, played at Turner Field and Miller Park now named American Family Field, respectively.
On January 8, 2001, Aaron was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, from President George W. Bush in June 2002. In 2001, a recreational trail in Milwaukee connecting American Family Field with Lake Michigan along the Menomonee River was dedicated as the "Hank Aaron State Trail". Aaron attended the dedication. Aaron was on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service.
In 2002, Aaron was honored with the "Lombardi Award of Excellence" from the Vince Lombardi Cancer Foundation. The award was created to honor Vince Lombardi's legacy and is awarded annually to an individual who exemplifies the spirit of the coach.
Aaron dedicated the new exhibit "Hank Aaron-Chasing the Dream" at the Baseball Hall of Fame on April 25, 2009. Statues of Aaron stand outside the front entrance of both Turner Field and American Family Field. There is also a statue of him as an 18-year-old shortstop outside Carson Park in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, where he played his first season in the Braves' minor league system.
He was named a 2010 Georgia Trustee by the Georgia Historical Society, in conjunction with the Governor of Georgia, to recognize accomplishments and community service that reflect the ideals of the founding body of Trustees, which governed the Georgia colony from 1732 to 1752.
In November 2015, Aaron was one of the five inaugural recipients of the Portrait of a Nation Prize, an award granted by the National Portrait Gallery in recognition of "exemplary achievements in the fields of civil rights, business, entertainment, science, and sports."
The Elite Development Invitational, a youth baseball tournament organized by the Major League Baseball and the MLB Players Association to increase diversity in the sport, was renamed the Hank Aaron Invitational for the 2019 season.
Atlanta-area sports teams plan to honor Aaron during the 2021 seasons. The Arthur Blank-owned Atlanta Falcons and Atlanta United FC, along with Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets have plans during their 2021 seasons to reserve 44 for Aaron. It is expected the Gwinnett County professional teams, the AAA Gwinnett Stripers (2021 season) and AA Atlanta Gladiators (2021-22 season), will also be involved in temporarily retiring Aaron's 44. (The NBA's Atlanta Hawks had previously retired No. 44 for Pete Maravich.) Also in Atlanta, the Forrest Hill Academy was renamed the Hank Aaron New Beginnings Academy in April 2021. The alternative high school had been named after Nathan Bedford Forrest, a general in the Confederate Army and the Ku Klux Klan's first Grand Wizard.
- 3,000 hit club
- 500 home run club
- Aaron Monument
- Hank Aaron Stadium
- "A Leela of Her Own"
- List of Major League Baseball annual doubles leaders
- List of Major League Baseball annual home run leaders
- List of Major League Baseball annual runs batted in leaders
- List of Major League Baseball annual runs scored leaders
- List of Major League Baseball batting champions
- List of Major League Baseball career doubles leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career runs batted in leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career triples leaders
- List of Major League Baseball doubles records
- List of Major League Baseball home run records
- List of Major League Baseball individual streaks
- List of Major League Baseball runs batted in records
- Major League Baseball titles leaders
- Ruth-Aaron pairs
- MLB held two All-Star Games from 1959 through 1962
- Now the Dunbar Creative and Performing Arts Magnet School, 500 St. Anthony St., Mobile. In 1955 Central High School and Dunbar Jr. High School switched locations; Central High closed in 1970 following desegregation.
- His average was .319, .007 behind the leader, Tommy Davis.
- Aaron was 34 years, five months, and nine days old. Jimmie Foxx was the youngest to reach the mark at the time. Since then, Alex Rodriguez has become the youngest to reach this mark.
- "For single seasons, From 1876 to 2008, (requiring HR≥30), sorted by greatest Seasons matching criteria". Baseball-Reference.com. USA TODAY Sports Digital Properties. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Hank Aaron". The Sporting News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2001. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- Johnson, Bill 2013.
- Jhaveri, Hemal (January 22, 2021). "Hank Aaron's searing words on the racism he faced should never be forgotten". For the Win. USA Today. Archived from the original on February 2, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron: Baseball icon and civil rights activist dies aged 86". Sky Sports. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron Fielding Stats". Baseball-Reference.com Mobile. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "For single seasons, From 1876 to 2008, (requiring H≥150), sorted by greatest Seasons matching criteria". Baseball-Reference.com. USA TODAY Sports Digital Properties. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Wisconsin Sports Development Corporation 2013
- Anon 2013
- Bily 2002, pp. 1–3
- Porter 2000, p. 1.
- Bryant 2010, p. [page needed].
- Nemec 1994, p. 222
- "Jackie Robinson Aaron's boyhood idol". Toledo Blade. April 1, 1974. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Dunbar/Central High School". THE HISTORICAL MARKER DATABASE. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "Dunbar Creative And Performing Arts Magnet School". Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
- Allen & Gilbert 1999, p. 2
- Johnson, Steve 2013[better source needed]
- Bryant 2010, p. 33
- Negro Southern League Museum Research Center. "Negro League Player Register" (PDF). p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Anon 2013a
- "Stealing Home". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Hoiberg 2010, p. 5
- Candee 1958, p. 3
- Honig 2000, p. 290
- Schwarz & Thorn 2004, p. 819
- Vascellaro 2005, p. 20
- Bryant 2010, p. 43
- "Hank Aaron Visits Negro League Museum". Augusta Chronicle. Associated Press. July 11, 1999. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Pollock 2006, p. 228
- Spencer 2002, p. 27
- Schwartz 1999
- Bryant 2010, p. 50
- Monestime 2011
- Jordan 2005, p. 196
- Candee 1958, p. 4
- Vascellaro 2005, pp. 47–48
- Bryant 2010, p. 80
- Allen & Gilbert 1999, p. 4
- "Hank Aaron Timeline". 755homeruns.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Bryant 2010, p. 541
- Young 2013.
- Musick 1974, p. 66
- Kaese 1963
- Nunn 1963
- Maglie 1957
- "Hank Aaron Batting Stats". Baseball-Reference.com. USA TODAY Sports Digital Properties. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Donnelly 2012: "Although teams were picked, there was no game in 1945 due to World War II, and there were two games a year from 1959 to 1962. During those five years, all players who were named to the AL or NL roster were credited with one appearance per season."
- Wolpin 1990, p. 1
- Stanton 2005, p. 142
- "This date in Braves history: Hank Aaron's only inside-the-park homer". Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Yuhasz 2005
- Retrosheet 2012
- "1969 Awards Voting". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Stanton 2005, p. 202
- "N/A". The Philadelphia Inquirer. July 27, 1972. p. 23. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
- "N/A". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. September 3, 1972. p. 71. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
- Aaron, Henry; Wheeler, Lonnie (2014). I Had a Hammer (2nd ed.). Harper-Collins e-Books. ISBN 9780061873379.
- "N/A". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. November 3, 1972. p. 38. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
- Stanton 2005, p. 62
- Stanton 2005, p. 179
- Stanton 2005, p. 64
- Grizzard 1990, pp. 239–240
- Leggett 1973, p. 29
- Schulz 2009, p. 95
- Stanton 2005, p. 25
- Minter 2002
- Poling 2010
- Hiestand 2013
- Justice 2014
- "Vin Scully's Call of Hank Aaron's 715th Home Run". March 4, 2010. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013 – via YouTube.
- Anon 2014
- "Aaron Hits Horner With Final Swing". The New York Times. October 4, 1974. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "Aaron Gets Reception, Mets Get Trounced, 8‐1". The New York Times. June 18, 1974. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Bryant 2011, p. [page needed].
- "Aaron Signs 2-year pact". The New York Times. November 15, 1974. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Coffey, Alex. "The Braves Trade Henry Aaron to the Brewers". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on November 2, 2020. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- Durso 1974
- Lynch, Mike. "July 15, 1975: In Milwaukee, NL wins fourth straight All-Star Game". SABR.org. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Crowe 2007
- Curry 2007
- Braunstein & Wolpin 2006
- "Game Over for Liberty's Purchase of Braves from Time Warner". Multichannel News. May 17, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
- Blum, Ronald (May 16, 2007). "Braves' Sale Approved by Baseball Owners". The Washington Post.[dead link]
- Robinson, Jr. 1999, p. 1
- Burnett 2013
- "Charles Schwab Super Bowl XXXVI ad feat. Hank Aaron & Barry Bonds – Retirement (2002)". Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014 – via YouTube.[dead link]
- Gimbel 2007
- Bloom, Barry M.; Haft, Chris (August 8, 2007). "Aaron congratulates Bonds via video". Major League Baseball. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Health experts urge confidence in vaccine after superstar's death". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Savage, Claire (January 27, 2021). "Hall of Famer Hank Aaron's death unrelated to Covid-19 vaccination". AFP. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "Baseball legend Hank Aaron got virus vaccine earlier in January". CBS Newspath. Associated Press. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
- "Baseball icon Hank Aaron dead at age 86". al. January 22, 2021. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Baseball legend Hank Aaron has died at the age of 86". EMEA Tribune. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Kephart, Tim (January 22, 2021). "Hall of Famer Henry "Hank" Aaron dies at 86". CBS46.com. CBS46. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Close, David; Sterling, Wayne; Sanchez, Ray. "Hank Aaron, baseball legend and former home run king, dies at 86". CNN. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron cause of death determined". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. January 25, 2021. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- "Private funeral service for Hank Aaron announced". Fox5 Atlanta. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron Fast Facts". CNN. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
- "The Catholic Northwest Progress". washingtondigitalnewspapers.org. May 8, 1959. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Famous Religious Conversions Hank Aaron". trivia-library.com. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Pattison, Mark (January 22, 2021). "Baseball's home run king Hank Aaron fought racism on and off the field". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
- Baldwin, Stanley C. (1974). Bad Henry. Chilton Book Co. ISBN 0-8019-5960-8. OCLC 858863.
- Aaron, Hank (1991). I had a hammer. Harper Audio. ISBN 1-55994-363-7. OCLC 23593814.
- Pokorny 2017
- Inabinett 2013
- "Hall of Famers: Hank Aaron". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today". NAACP. 2013. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Hank Aaron Biography and Interview". achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- "All-time winners". Major League Baseball. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "The All-Century Team". Major League Baseball. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Schiavone, Tony (July 8, 2016). "Are These the 4 Most Important Athletes in Atlanta History?". atlanta.cbslocal.com. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- Anon 2013c
- Barrier, Bob; McClellan, Scott. "Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium". SABR.org. Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron Timeline". The Sporting News. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- "HONORARY DEGREE RECIPIENT". Marquette University. 2012. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- "Sporting News' 100 Greatest Baseball Players". amiannoying.com. Escapeway, Inc. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Major League Baseball All-Century Team". Baseball Almanac. Archived from the original on August 30, 2001. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Honorary Degree Recipients" (PDF). Tufts University. May 19, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- "Aaron to throw out first pitch at All-Star Game". Amarillo Globe News. Associated Press. June 30, 2000. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Messina 2011
- "President Bush Announces the Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. June 20, 2002. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Our Board of Selectors". Jefferson Awards Foundation. 2013. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- "Hall of Fame". Vince Lombardi Cancer Foundation. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "Overview: Guide to Exhibits". baseballhall.org. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 2021 PDF version
- "About Carson Park: Eau Claire, Wisconsin". Eau Claire Express. 2013. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Van Brimmer 2010
- "Princeton awards six honorary degrees". Princeton University. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Aaron receives honorary degree from Princeton". ESPN. May 31, 2011. Archived from the original on August 18, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Portrait of Nation Prize Winner: Hank Aaron". npg.si.edu. National Portrait Gallery. November 9, 2015. Archived from the original on April 8, 2020. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
- Freed, Benjamin (November 16, 2015). "National Portrait Gallery Honors Aretha Franklin, Carolina Herrera, Hank Aaron". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
- "Hank Aaron presented with Order of the Rising Sun". ESPN. Associated Press. January 14, 2016. Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- "Hank Aaron throws out 1st pitch at SunTrust Park". April 14, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
- "Twitter, Bally Sports: Braves". April 14, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
- "MLB renames developmental program after Hank Aaron". ESPN. Associated Press. October 26, 2018. Archived from the original on July 3, 2020.
- King, Michael. "Georgia Tech football to retire Hank Aaron's number 44 for 2021 season". WXIA. TEGNA Media. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
- Inabinett, Mark. "Hank Aaron replaces Confederate general in school name". AL.com. Advance Local Media. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
- Allen, Bob; Gilbert, Bill (1999). The 500 Home Run Club: From Aaron to Williams. Champaign, Illinois: Sports Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-58261-031-3.
- Anon (2014). "Henry Aaron 1954–1974". Atlanta Braves. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Anon (2013). "Where Does Hank Aaron Live Today?". Ask.com Answers. ask.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Anon (2013a). "Hank Aaron – Played In Negro League And Major League". sports.jrank.org. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Anon (2013c). "Hank Aaron Stadium Info". Milb.com. Minor League Baseball. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Bily, Cynthia A (2002) . Johnson, Rafer (ed.). Great Athletes. 1 (Revised ed.). Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-008-6.
- Braunstein, Arnie; Wolpin, Stewart (2006). "Hank Aaron". BaseballLibrary.com. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Burnett, Emmett (October 31, 2013). "Sports stars of Alabama: Where are they now?". Alabama Living Magazine. Archived from the original on December 14, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Bryant, Howard (2010). The Last Hero: A Life of Henry Aaron (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42485-4.
- Bryant, Howard (2011). The Last Hero: A Life of Henry Aaron. ISBN 9780307279927. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Candee, Marjorie Dent, ed. (1958). "Aaron, Henry (Louis)". Current Biography Yearbook (19th annual cumulation: 1958 ed.). New York: H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 2–4.
- Crowe, Jerry (July 2, 2007). "There was a big catch holding on to No. 755". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Curry, Jack (August 8, 2007). "Bonds Hits No. 756 to Break Aaron's Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Donnelly, Patrick (2012). "Midsummer Classics: Celebrating MLB's All-Star Game". SportsData. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- Durso, Joseph (December 3, 1974). "Baseball Draft Is Skimpy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 2, 2020. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- Gimbel, Mike (August 15, 2007). "Hank Aaron praises Barry Bonds for home run record". Workers World commentary. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011.
- Grizzard, Lewis (1990). If I Ever Get Back to Georgia, I'm Gonna Nail My Feet to the Ground. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0394587257.
- Hiestand, Michael (March 26, 2013). "Craig Sager's backstory more colorful than his clothes". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Aaron, Hank". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Honig, Donald (2000). "Batting Around" (PDF). NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture. Muse.jhu.edu. 9 (1 & 2): 284–292. doi:10.1353/nin.2001.0024. S2CID 201747422. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Inabinett, Mark (July 19, 2013). "Police recover both of Hank Aaron's stolen cars after Atlanta home burglarized". al.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Johnson, Bill (2013). "Hank Aaron". SABR Bioproject. Society for American Baseball Research. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Johnson, Steve (2013). "Hank Aaron: Early Years". angelfire.com. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2014.[better source needed]
- Jordan, Pat (2005) . A False Spring. New York: Bison Books. ISBN 978-0803276260.
- Justice, Richard (April 8, 2014). "Milo Hamilton made Hank Aaron's homer itself star of No. 715 call". Braves.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- Kaese, Harold (August 16, 1963). "Stuart Ranks Next to Foxx; Sox' 2nd Best Righty Slugger". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2019 – via MediaFire.
- Leggett, William (May 28, 1973). "A Tortured Road to 715". Sports Illustrated. Chicago, Illinois: 28–35.
- Maglie, Sal (October 14, 1957). "Braves' New World". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved August 7, 2020.[permanent dead link]
- Messina, Paul (2011). "Presidential Citizens Medal". Raised by TV. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Minter, A. Binford (2002). "Hank Aaron (b. 1934)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. Archived from the original on May 7, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Monestime, Ronald (February 6, 2011). "This Day in Black Sports History: February 5, 1934". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Musick, Phil (1974). Hank Aaron, The Man Who Beat the Babe (1st ed.). Popular Library. ASIN B0006W2Y7E.
- Nemec, David (1994). Players of Cooperstown: Baseball's Hall of Fame. Cooperstown, New York: Publications International. ISBN 978-0785308768.
- Northrup, Adrian (October 23, 2006). "Aaron joins Doyle in campaign stop". The Spectator. Spectatornews.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Nunn, Jr., Bill (November 9, 1963). "Change of Pace". The Pittsburgh Courier. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2019 – via MediaFire.
- Pokorny, Chris (May 27, 2017). "Hank Aaron explains how he is a fan of the Browns". Dawgs By Nature. Archived from the original on July 29, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- Poling, Dean (September 5, 2010). "Hank Aaron Reunites with Valdosta Man who Followed him onto Field". Valdosta Daily Times. Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc. Archived from the original on September 8, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Pollock, Alan J. (2006). Riley, James A. (ed.). Barnstorming to Heaven: Syd Pollock and His Great Black Teams. University Alabama Press. ISBN 0817314954.
- Porter, David L., ed. (2000). Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: A-F (Revised ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0313311741. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Batters: Home Runs (Career)". Retrosheet. 2012. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Robinson, Jr., Alonford James (1999). "Aaron, Henry Louis (Hank)". In Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Jr., Henry Louis (eds.). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
- Schulz, Charles M. (2009). The Complete Peanuts, 1973–1974. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics. ISBN 978-1606992869.
- Schwartz, Larry (1999). "Hammerin' back at racism". ESPN Classic. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Schwarz, Alan; Thorn, John (2004). "From Babe to Mel – The Top 100 People in Baseball History". Hank Aaron. Total Baseball: The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: Sport Media Publishing Inc. pp. 818–820. ISBN 1-894963-27-X.
- Spencer, Lauren (2002). Hank Aaron. Baseball Hall of Famers. New York: Rosen Central. ISBN 978-0823936007.
- Stanton, Tom (2005). Hank Aaron and the Home Run That Changed America. New York: Perennial Currents. ISBN 978-0-06-072290-6.
- Van Brimmer, Adam (February 14, 2010). "Ted Turner, Hank Aaron influenced each other as well as Georgia". Savannah Morning News. savannahnow.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Vascellaro, Charlie (2005). Hank Aaron: A Biography. Baseball's All-Time Greatest Hitters. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33001-8.
- Wisconsin Sports Development Corporation (2013). "Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame Members by Year". Sports in Wisconsin. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Wolpin, Stewart (1990). "Hank Aaron". In Shatzkin, Mike (ed.). The Ballplayers: Baseball's Ultimate Biographical Reference. New York: Arbor House William Morrow. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-87795-984-6.
- Young, Geisler (2013). "Al Downing Stats". Baseball Almanac. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- Yuhasz, Dennis (2005). "Hank Aaron Biography". Baseball Almanac. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Hank Aaron at the Baseball Hall of Fame
- Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference (Minors), or Retrosheet
- Play-by-Play Audio of Aaron's 715th Home Run from Archive.org
- "Hank Aaron collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Hank Aaron at IMDb